Master’s degrees are the most diverse type of academic degree you can find, with different specialisations and majors, as well as different teaching styles. Some Masters also have interdisciplinary curricula and do not easily fall into one category. But what are these categories and what do Master's degree abbreviations like M.Sc. or M.A. mean? Not to mention Master's abbreviations that almost sound made up like M.Phil, M.Litt, or M.Res.
Well, here are some facts about the main types of Master’s degrees to help you decide which one is right for your studies abroad:
What are M.Sc. degrees?
Master of Science (M. Sc.) degrees refer to a common type of postgraduate academic Master’s degrees largely awarded by most universities and colleges worldwide. In combination with a 3-year or 4-year Bachelor's programme, Master’s programmes replace old five-year study programmes such as the German Diplom or the Dutch doctorandus.
The study duration of this type of Master’s programme differs. You can find both 1-year and 2-year Master of Science degrees. You usually complete an M.Sc. by writing a scientific thesis. The Master of Science is awarded to students of universities in these areas of study: Natural Sciences, Social Sciences, Engineering Sciences, Applied Sciences, Earth Sciences and Information Technology.
You can find Masters of Science anywhere in the world, but here are some international locations with the most options:
Of course, you can find many other Masters in Science anywhere else on the globe.
What are M.A. degrees?
Master of Arts (M. A. or Magister Artium) degrees are the most common Master’s degrees along with the M. Sc. They are awarded by most universities and colleges around the world. Like most Master’s programmes, the duration of a Master of Arts programme differs but usually takes 1 to 2 years to complete. The Master of Arts is typically awarded in Humanities fields such as: History, Geography, Philosophy, Fine Arts and Social Sciences.
Here are some top locations where you can find a lot of good M.A.s:
M.A. degrees can overlap with Masters of Science. In order to receive a Master of Arts, the completion of a dissertation based on independent research is usually required besides passing all courses.
What are MBA degrees?
A Master of Business Administration (MBA) degree is by definition a General Management degree designed to educate students in areas such as finances, human resources, marketing, strategic thinking and operations management.
The main characteristic of an MBA degree is the peer-to-peer education involving successful business people and the networking among students from diverse backgrounds. The MBA aims at a well-rounded business graduate, and not an expert in just one single aspect.
In contrast to classical Master of Science or Master of Arts programmes that are usually consecutive to a similar Bachelor’s programme, MBA degrees attracts people from a wide range of academic disciplines. MBAs usually requires several years of work experience and can thus not be directly started after graduating from a Bachelor’s or other Master’s programme.
Not sure where to study an MBA degree? Here are some of the most popular places worldwide:
Don't miss more MBAs offered by international business schools.
What are LL.M. degrees?
Master of Laws (LL.M.) degrees are graduate degrees that you can most often get from law schools. The abbreviation LL.M. stands for Legum Magister where LL. is the Latin abbreviation for laws. The Master of Laws is the logical continuation of legal studies after a Bachelor’s programme in Law (L.L.B.).
As the Bachelor's of Laws is already sufficient in countries such as the UK in order to practise Law, the Master of Laws has a supplementary character, standing for an advanced legal qualification in a certain subject area.
In contrast to other Master's degree types, the Master of Laws is not that widespread. Many countries such as Germany for example still require an additional state examination in order to be eligible for practising Law.
What are M.Phil. degrees?
The Master of Philosophy (M.Phil.) is a postgraduate research degree awarded by universities. In contrast to other Master's degrees such as the M.Sc. or the M.A., the Master of Philosophy is often awarded to students during their Ph.D.
The Master of Philosophy is awarded after completing the first part of the Ph.D. studies and submitting a first short report or dissertation. It is thus often seen as a formality only. However, there are also countries such as Norway, which offer the Master of Philosophy as regular first Master’s degree, comparable to a Master of Science. Check out Masters of Philosophy worldwide.
What are M.Litt. degrees?
Master of Letters degrees (M. Litt, lat: Magister litterarum) are postgraduate research degrees similar to the M.Sc. or the M.A. This type of degree is not that common and is usually awarded by select universities, mainly in the UK, Ireland and Australia.
The Master of Letters is often seen as a distinction over other types of Masters. Prestigious universities such as the University of Oxford or the University of Cambridge are likely to offer M.Litt.s. Check out Masters of Letters worldwide.
What are M. Res. degrees?
Master of Research (M. Res) degrees are an advanced type of postgraduate research degrees. M.Res. degrees are awarded in specific academic disciplines that can be also reflected in the full degree name (e.g. Master of Arts by Research).
The M. Res.degree is especially focused on preparing students for doctoral research. The programme structure is usually more flexible and involves a comparably large dissertation based on independent research or a practice-led research project.
The Master of Research can be similar to a Master of Philosophy (M.Phil.) and be awarded to students on the way to or instead of a Ph.D.
What are M.Ed. degrees?
So, what does M. Ed. stand for? The Master of Education degree (M.Ed. or Magister Educationis) is a postgraduate degree awarded by many universities worldwide. It is similar to a Master of Science or Master of Arts but awarded to study programmes in the area of education.
In many countries such as Germany or the Netherlands for example, the M.Ed. is a successor of state examination degrees and allows graduates to perform a profession as a teacher at public schools.
The Master of Education is not entirely limited to studies that aim at educating school teachers. Interdisciplinary programmes and education-related subjects can be awarded a Master of Education. Check out Masters of Education worldwide.
What are M.Eng. degrees?
The Master of Engineering (M. Eng. or ME) is a postgraduate Master’s degree that is obtained after studying a major in an Engineering Science. The study duration of a Master of Engineering programme varies. There are programmes which last 1-year as well as those that take 2 years.
The Master of Engineering is academically equal to the M.Sc. or MA. It is common practice to award an M.Eng. for more practically-oriented studies at universities of applied sciences.
Due to the numerous specialisations in areas of Engineering, there are further degree types such as the Master of Science in Engineering (M.Sc. in Eng.), the Master of Business Administration and Engineering (MBAE) or the Master of Business Engineering (MBE). Check out Masters of Engineering worldwide.
What is a Grad. Dip.?
The Graduate Diploma (Grad. Dip.) is a postgraduate qualification offering a degree between Bachelor's and Master's level. A postgraduate diploma can be normally started after the completion of a Bachelor’s degree and is, typically, to be completed in half the time of a comparable Master’s programme.
Most graduate diplomas can be extended in order to convert them into a full Master’s degree. Postgraduate Diplomas are gaining popularity as they are more affordable than a Master’s degree and save time for the student.
What is a Grad. Cert.?
The Postgraduate Certificate (Grad. Cert.) is a postgraduate qualification as a follow-up after completing a Bachelor’s degree. It takes usually one year of full-time study to finish and is equivalent to a Master’s degree or recognised as a foundation study for a Master’s degree. Graduate Certificates can be followed up by an MBA programme. Read more about Postgraduate Certificates and Graduate Diplomas.
Check out Graduate Certificates and Diplomas you can study abroad.
What are pre-Master's degrees?
Pre-Master's programmes aim at preparing and qualifying students for a Master’s programme. Deficiency courses cover topics that have not been part of the Bachelor’s education but are needed in order to proceed with a desired Master’s programme.
Pre-Masters are usually needed when pursuing a Master’s programme with a different focus than the Bachelor’s programme or when changing the university level from a university of applied sciences to a general university. Find Pre-Masters worldwide.
Find out more about Bachelor's degree abbreviations.